If you’re going to shoot a .50 cal rifle?
You’re going to want to make sure that the target you’re shooting either
1) soft enough to totally absorb the round’s kinetic energy, or
2) is at a distance at least 60% of the weapon’s maximum range.
More or less. Depending on the risk you’re willing to inherit.
Keeping in mind that a .50 cal round can not only go a long way out, it can also come a long way back. And even tumbling down to rest? Would sting like a mutha.
(H/T to GEO06 for the vid)